This paper presents a model for expressing control system failures and attacks on control protocols that involve the exchange of messages. Control failures and attacks are modeled using the notion of an attacker who can block and/or fabricate messages. These two attack mechanisms can cover a variety of scenarios ranging from control failures in the Waterloo Campaign to cyber attacks on oil pipelines. The model helps provide a comprehensive understanding of control system failures and attacks, which supports the development of strategies for attack as well as defense.
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