The plug-in hybrid electric vehicle allows vehicle propulsion from multiple internal power sources. Electric energy from the grid can be utilized by means of the plug-in connection. An on-line energy management (EM) strategy is proposed to minimize the costs for taking energy from each power source. Especially in a dynamical energy market, an on-line optimization algorithm is desirable since energy prices change over time. By construction, the proposed EM system can operate with, and without prediction information. If predictions are available, an electronic horizon is applied to anticipate on up-coming events and further optimize the strategy. Illustrative examples are given to explain the added value for both solutions. Also the situation where energy is transferred back to the grid is considered. © 2008 IEEE.
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