This paper presents the results of finite element simulations made on a bent pipe subjected to an in-plane variable cyclic displacement combined with internal pressure. Special emphasis is put on the capacity of the model to illustrate different failure modes depending on the internal pressure applied on the pipe. The results of the numerical analyses will be compared to experimental ones. The constitutive model used for the simulation of Ultra Low Cycle Fatigue (ULCF) loading and the hardening–softening law used are only briefly touched upon. The monotonic behavior of a large diameter pipe, as obtained from the constitutive model proposed, is also shown and compared to experimental results under two different loading conditions. The total axial load at failure for this case resulted in less than 10% error as compared to the experiments. Regarding the ULCF in-plane bending simulations conducted on a 16-in. 90º� elbow, the results were in good agreement with the experimental test in terms of force–displacement hysteresis loops and total fatigue life of the specimen. An analysis of the dependence of the failure mode to the internal pressure applied has been conducted, showing that the formulation is capable of obtaining both habitual failure types.
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