We discuss in this paper the numerical approximation of fluid-structure interaction (FSI) problems dealing with strong added-mass effect. We propose new semi-implicit algorithms based on inexact block-$LU$ factorization of the linear system obtained after the space-time discretization and linearization of the FSI problem. As a result, the fluid velocity is computed separately from the coupled pressure-structure velocity system at each iteration, reducing the computational cost. We investigate explicit-implicit decomposition through algebraic splitting techniques originally designed for the FSI problem. This approach leads to two different families of methods which extend to FSI the algebraic pressure correction method and the Yosida method, two schemes that were previously adopted for pure fluid problems. Furthermore, we have considered the inexact factorization of the fluid-structure system as a preconditioner. The numerical properties of these methods have been tested on a model problem representing a blood-vessel system.