In this paper, we investigate the effect of an external human- machine interface (eHMI) and a conspicuous external vehicle appearance due to visible sensors on pedestrian interactions with automated vehicles (AVs). Recent research shows that AVs may need to explicitly communicate with the environ- ment due to the absence of a driver. Furthermore, in interac- tion situations, an AV that looks different and conspicuous owing to an extensive sensor system may potentially lead to hesitation stemming from mistrust in automation. Thus, we evaluated in a virtual reality study how pedestrian attitude, the presence/absence of an eHMI, and a conspicuous sensor system affect their willingness to cross the road. Results rec- ommend the use of an eHMI. A conspicuous appearance of automated-driving capability had no effect for the sample as a whole, although it led to more efficient crossing decisions for those with a more negative attitude towards AVs. Our findings contribute towards the effective design of future AV interfaces.
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