Transportation accounts for more than 20% of the total Greenouse Gas (GHG) emissions in Canada. Switching from fossil fuels to more environmentally friendly energy sources and to Zero-Emission Vehicles (ZEVs) is a promising option for future transportation but well to wheel emission and charging/refuelling patterns must also be considered. This paper investigates the barriers to and opportunities for electric charging and hydrogen refueling infrastructure incentives in Ontario, Canada and estimates the number of Internal Combustion Engine Vehicles (ICEVs) that would be offset by infrastructure incentives. The paper also assesses the potential of electric and hybrid-electric powertrains to enable GHG reductions, explores the impact of the electricity supply mix for supporting zero-emission vehicles in different scenarios and studies the effect of the utility factor for PHEVs in Ontario. The authors compare the use of electric vehicle charging infrastructures and hydrogen refueling stations regarding overall GHG emission reductions for an infrastructure incentive funded by a 20-million-dollar government grant. The results suggest that this incentive can provide infrastructure that can offset around 9000 ICEVs vehicles using electricity charging infrastructure and 4000&ndash

8700 when using hydrogen refuelling stations. Having appropriate limitations and policy considerations for the potential 1.7 million electric-based vehicles that may be in use by 2024 in Ontario would result in 5&ndash

7 million tonne GHG avoidances in different scenarios, equivalent to the removal of 1&ndash

1.5 million ICEVs from the road.

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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/wevj9030038 under the license cc-by
https://academic.microsoft.com/#/detail/2888601510 under the license https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/
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Published on 01/01/2018

Volume 2018, 2018
DOI: 10.3390/wevj9030038
Licence: Other

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