S. Ushiama, Y. Ishimaru, M. Narukawa, M. Yoshioka, C. Kozuka, N. Watanabe, M. Tsunoda, N. Osakabe, T. Asakura, H. Masuzaki, K. Abe
Taste signals and nutrient stimuli sensed by the gastrointestinal tract are transmitted to the brain to regulate feeding behavior and energy homeostasis. This system is referred to as the gut-brain axis. Here we show that both brush cells and type II taste cells are eliminated in the gastrointestinal tract of transcription factor Skn-1 knockout (KO) mice. Despite unaltered food intake, Skn-1 KO mice have reduced body weight with lower body fat due to increased energy expenditure. In this model, 24-h urinary excretion of catecholamines was significantly elevated, accompanied by increased fatty acid β-oxidation and fuel dissipation in skeletal muscle and impaired insulin secretion driven by glucose. These results suggest the existence of brain-mediated energy homeostatic pathways originating from brush cells and type II taste cells in the gastrointestinal tract and ending in peripheral tissues, including the adrenal glands. The discovery of food-derived factors that regulate these cells may open new avenues the treatment of obesity and diabetes. Taste signals and nutrient stimuli sensed by the gastrointestinal tract are transmitted to the brain to regulate feeding behavior and energy homeostasis along the gut-brain axis. We propose the concept that taste-receiving cells in the oral cavity and/or food-borne chemicals-receiving brush cells in the gut are involved in regulation of the body weight and adiposity via the brain. The discovery of food-derived factors that regulate these cells may open new avenues for the treatment of obesity and diabetes.
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Published on 06/04/17
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