In 2005, the World Bank Group (WBG) formally introduced the results framework in the country assistant strategy (CASs) as a key tool for improving the quality of the WBG's strategy in borrowing member countries, maximizing the development effectiveness of WBG assistance, and demonstrating measurable results of international aid in fostering growth and reducing poverty. These results matrices define the outcome indicators and milestones for tracking WBG program progress and mid-course corrective actions, fulfilling important accountability as well as learning objectives. The results-based CAS approach has brought several benefits including the focus on results, better alignment between the WBG country engagement and national priorities, and flexibility in instruments to accommodate programming for the increasingly diverse set of Bank clients, including International Development Association (IDA), International Bank for Reconstruction and Development (IBRD), and fragile countries. The matrix system at work and RAP 2013, have demonstrated that a weak CAS results framework is a key determinant of unsatisfactory outcome performance at the country program level. The objective of this note is to provide suggestions for improvement in results frameworks for country strategies based on an independent evaluation group (IEG) analysis of WBG's country strategies approved during FY2008-14 and the CAS completion report (CASCRs) prepared by country teams during FY2012-14.
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