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− | + | Published in ''Int. J. Numer. Meth. Fluids'' Vol. 69 (11), pp. 1016-1030, 2011<br /> | |

+ | doi:10.1002/fld.2628 | ||

+ | == Abstract == | ||

− | + | Negatively buoyant jets consist in a dense fluid injected vertically upward into a lighter ambient fluid. The numerical simulation of this kind of buoyancy‐driven flows is challenging as it involves multiple fluids with different physical properties. In the case of immiscible fluids, it requires, in addition, to track the motion of the interface between fluids and accurately represent the discontinuities of the flow variables. | |

− | + | In this paper, we investigate numerically the injection of a negatively buoyant jet into a homogenous immiscible ambient fluid using the Particle Finite Element Method and compare the two‐dimensional numerical results with experiments on the injection of a jet of dyed water through a nozzle in the base of a cylindrical tank containing rapeseed oil. In both simulations and experiments, the fountain inlet flow velocity and nozzle diameter have been varied to cover a wide range of Froude <math>Fr</math> and Reynolds <math>Re</math> numbers (<math>0.1<Fr<30</math>, <math>8<R<1350</math>), reproducing both weak and strong laminar fountains. | |

+ | The flow behaviors observed for the different numerical simulations fit in the regime map based on the Re and Fr values of the experiments, and the maximum fountain height is in good agreement with the experimental observations, suggesting that particle finite element method is a useful tool for the study of immiscible two‐fluid systems. | ||

− | + | <pdf>Media:Draft_Samper_175175176_9787_Mier-Torrecilla_et_al-2012-International_Journal_for_Numerical_Methods_in_Fluids.pdf</pdf> | |

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Published in *Int. J. Numer. Meth. Fluids* Vol. 69 (11), pp. 1016-1030, 2011

doi:10.1002/fld.2628

Negatively buoyant jets consist in a dense fluid injected vertically upward into a lighter ambient fluid. The numerical simulation of this kind of buoyancy‐driven flows is challenging as it involves multiple fluids with different physical properties. In the case of immiscible fluids, it requires, in addition, to track the motion of the interface between fluids and accurately represent the discontinuities of the flow variables.

In this paper, we investigate numerically the injection of a negatively buoyant jet into a homogenous immiscible ambient fluid using the Particle Finite Element Method and compare the two‐dimensional numerical results with experiments on the injection of a jet of dyed water through a nozzle in the base of a cylindrical tank containing rapeseed oil. In both simulations and experiments, the fountain inlet flow velocity and nozzle diameter have been varied to cover a wide range of Froude **Failed to parse (MathML with SVG or PNG fallback (recommended for modern browsers and accessibility tools): Invalid response ("Math extension cannot connect to Restbase.") from server "https://mathoid.scipedia.com:8081/localhost/v1/":): Fr**

and ReynoldsFailed to parse (MathML with SVG or PNG fallback (recommended for modern browsers and accessibility tools): Invalid response ("Math extension cannot connect to Restbase.") from server "https://mathoid.scipedia.com:8081/localhost/v1/":): Renumbers (Failed to parse (MathML with SVG or PNG fallback (recommended for modern browsers and accessibility tools): Invalid response ("Math extension cannot connect to Restbase.") from server "https://mathoid.scipedia.com:8081/localhost/v1/":): 0.1<Fr<30

, **Failed to parse (MathML with SVG or PNG fallback (recommended for modern browsers and accessibility tools): Invalid response ("Math extension cannot connect to Restbase.") from server "https://mathoid.scipedia.com:8081/localhost/v1/":): 8<R<1350**
), reproducing both weak and strong laminar fountains.

The flow behaviors observed for the different numerical simulations fit in the regime map based on the Re and Fr values of the experiments, and the maximum fountain height is in good agreement with the experimental observations, suggesting that particle finite element method is a useful tool for the study of immiscible two‐fluid systems.

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