Abstract

Vehicle manufactures have adopted different strategies for improving the environmental performance of their fleet including lightweight design and alternative drivetrains such as EVs. Both strategies reduce energy during use but may result in a relative increase of the impact during [...]

Abstract

The transport and electricity sectors are in the midst of major changes in an attempt to limit climate change and air pollution problems. In the coming decades conventional fossil fuelled vehicles are expected to be replaced with electric powertrain vehicles, resulting in increased [...]

Abstract

Lithium-ion battery packs inside electric vehicles represents a high share of the final price. Nevertheless, with technology advances and the growth of the market, the price of the battery is getting more competitive. The greenhouse gas emissions and the battery cost have been studied [...]