We present a 3-noded triangle and a 4-noded tetrahedra with a continuous linear velocity and a discontinuous linear pressure field formed by the sum of an unknown ''constant pressure field'' and ''a prescribed linear field'' that satisfies the steady state momentum equations for a constant body force. The elements are termed P1/P0+ as the “effective” pressure field is linear, although the unknown pressure field is piecewise constant within each element. The elements have an excellent behaviour for incompressible viscous flow problems with discontinuous material properties formulated in either Eulerian or Lagrangian descriptions. The necessary numerical stabilization for dealing with the inf-sup condition imposed by the incompressibility constraint and high convective effects (in Eulerian flows) is introduced via the Finite Calculus (FIC) approach. For the sake of clarity, the element derivation is presented first for the simpler Stokes equations written in the standard Eulerian frame. The extension of the formulation to the Navier-Stokes equations written in the Eulerian and Lagrangian frameworks is straightforward and is presented in the second part of the paper. The efficiency and accuracy of the new P1/P0+ triangle is verified by solving a set of incompressible multifluid flow problems using a Lagrangian approach and a classical Eulerian description. The excellent performance of the new triangular element in terms of mass conservation and general accuracy for analysis of fluids with discontinuous material properties is highlighted.

Abstract

We present a 3-noded triangle and a 4-noded tetrahedra with a continuous linear velocity and a discontinuous linear pressure field formed by the sum of an unknown ''constant pressure field'' and ''a prescribed linear field'' that satisfies the steady [...]

The expression ‘finite calculus’ refers to the derivation of the governing differential equations in mechanics by invoking balance of fluxes, forces, etc. in a space–time domain of finite size. The governing equations resulting from this approach are different from those of infinitesimal calculus theory and they incorporate new terms which depend on the dimensions of the balance domain. The new governing equations allow the derivation of naturally stabilized numerical schemes using any discretization procedure. The paper discusses the possibilities of the finite calculus method for the finite element solution of convection–diffusion problems with sharp gradients, incompressible fluid flow and incompressible solid mechanics problems and strain localization situations.

Abstract

The expression ‘finite calculus’ refers to the derivation of the governing differential equations in mechanics by invoking balance of fluxes, forces, etc. in a space–time [...]

Addresses two difficulties which arise when using a compressible code with equal order interpolation (non‐staggered grids in the finite‐difference nomenclature) to capture a steady‐state solution in the incompressible limit, i.e. at low Mach numbers. Explains that, first, numerical instabilities in the form of spurious oscillations in pressure pollute the solution and, second, the convergence to the steady state becomes extremely slow owing to bad conditioning of the different speeds of propagation. By using a stabilized method, allows the use of equal‐order interpolations in a consistent (weighted‐residual) formulation which stabilizes both the convection and the continuity terms at the same time. On the other hand, by using specially devised preconditioning, assures a rate of convergence independent of Mach number.

Abstract

Addresses two difficulties which arise when using a compressible code with equal order interpolation (non‐staggered grids in the finite‐difference nomenclature) to capture a steady‐state [...]

This work presents a novel proposal of a second-order accurate (in time and space) particle-based method for solving transport equations including incompressible flows problems within a mixed Lagrangian–Eulerian formulation. This methodology consists of a symmetrical operator splitting, the use of high-order operators to transfer data between the particles and the background mesh, and an improved version of the eXplicit Integration Following the Streamlines (X–IVS) method. In the case of incompressible flows, a large time-step iterative solver is employed where the momentum equation is split to improve the numerical approximation of the convective term.

New interpolation and projection operators are evaluated and quadratically accurate solutions of scalar transport tests are presented. Then, incompressible flow problems are solved where the rate of convergence of the method is assessed using both structured and unstructured background grids. The method is implemented in the open source platform OpenFOAM®allowing employing arbitrary meshes and obtaining reliable computing time comparisons with standardized solvers. The results obtained reveal that the current method is able to obtain a lower level of error than a fast Eulerian alternative, without increasing the total computing time.

We examine the use of natural boundary conditions and conditions of the Sommerfeld type for finite element simulations of convective transport in viscous incompressible flows. We show that natural boundary conditions are superior in the sense that they always provide a correct boundary condition, as opposed to the Sommerfeld‐type conditions, which can lead to a singular formulation and a great loss of accuracy. For the Navier–Stokes equations, the natural boundary conditions must be combined with a simple method to eliminate perturbations on the pressure at the open boundary, which is the source of most errors.

Abstract

We examine the use of natural boundary conditions and conditions of the Sommerfeld type for finite element simulations of convective transport in viscous incompressible flows. We show that [...]

We present a method to assess the stability of pairs of interpolation spaces for mixed formulations. The method is based on a straightforward calculation of the eigenvalues of the discrete matrices through Fourier decomposition in plane waves and is intended to give, via straightforward numerical computations, a sharper determination of stability than the well‐known ‘patch test’ of Zienkiewicz et al. Special attention is devoted to the study of stability and accuracy of equal‐order interpolations

Abstract

We present a method to assess the stability of pairs of interpolation spaces for mixed formulations. The method is based on a straightforward calculation of the eigenvalues of the discrete [...]