In Lange K. (eds), Simulation of Metal Forming Processes by the Finite Element Method (SIMOP-I). Berichte aus dem Institut für Umformtechnik der Universität Stuttgart, vol 85. Springer, Berlin, Heidelberg
The viscous shell approach combines the use of visco-plastic flow and classical shell theories. The paper presents the general aspects of the viscous shell formulation for axisymmetric and general 3-D shell problems using finite elements. Details of treatment of coordenate updating, friction effects, strain hardening and extensions to include the elastic deformations are also given together with some examples of application to the forming of axisymmetrical thin sheets of metal under hemispherical punches.